The modern Constitution of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma establishes a multi-branch structure for tribal government. The Executive Branch is represented by the tribal Chief. The Legislative Branch consists of a six-member Business Committee. All of these positions are elected by the citizens of the tribe. The positions rotate election cycles and allow four year terms. Term limits do not apply. All Judicial Branch issues are settled by the Court of Federal Records (CFR).
The tribal Constitution was ratified by a vote of the Eastern Shawnee people on April 4, 1994. The document was amended March 2, 1999.